Nothing is more important to success in the garden than good soil. Time spent fertilizing, watering and tending to plants is necessary, but this time is almost a waste if the soil you’re working with is not in good condition. Fall is an excellent time to step back and analyze how well your garden performed during the summer, and to make improvements to the soil.
Soil is formed when rock is broken down by climate and vegetation over a period of time. Soil is nothing more than weathered rock fragments and decaying remains of plants and animals.
Most soils have three distinct layers — surface, subsoil and bottom. The surface layer is a coarse layer containing more organic matter than the other soil layers and the layer that people pay the greatest attention to. This layer is the most fertile and has the greatest concentration of plant roots. Plants obtain much of their nutrients and water from the surface soil.