California records driest year in a century

Increasingly warmer temperatures have evaporated precipitation and melted snowpack much faster than in previous years, according to a recent study by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


National News

October 18, 2021 - 10:33 AM

Dried mud and a stranded buoy on the lakebed at Lake Oroville, which stands at 33% full and 40% of historical average when this photograph was taken, on Tuesday, June 29, 2021 in Oroville, California. (Brian van der Brug/Los Angeles Times/TNS)

LOS ANGELES — In a year of both extreme heat and extreme drought, California has reported its driest water year in terms of precipitation in a century, and experts fear the coming 12 months could be even worse.

The Western Regional Climate Center added average precipitation reported at each of its stations and calculated that a total of 11.87 inches of rain and snow fell in California in the 2021 water year. That’s half of what experts deem average during a water year in California: about 23.58 inches.

The climate center tallies rainfall by averaging all of the measured precipitation in the state at the end of a water year, which runs Oct. 1 through Sept. 30.

Based on the diminished levels of both precipitation and runoff, the last water year was the second driest on record, according to the California Department of Water Resources.

The last time the state reported so little rain and snowfall was in 1924.

Climatologists have compared the drought conditions that spanned 2020 and 2021 to the 1976-77 drought, which included California’s lowest level of statewide runoff in a single water year.

The average rainfall in 1976-77 was 28.7 inches; in 2020-21, it was 28.2 inches.

A federal report placed the economic losses from the 1976-77 drought at more than $1 billion, and some feared that drought could cripple the state’s water system.

The current multiyear drought has revived the same fears, as reservoirs are depleted and emergency drought proclamations have been issued in 50 of California’s 58 counties. Gov. Gavin Newsom has called on Californians to voluntarily reduce water use by 15%, and state officials say they may impose mandatory water restrictions if dryness continues this winter.

“The history of California has been written in long droughts,” said Bill Patzert, a retired climatologist who worked for decades at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory studying the effects of climate change. “There’s a lot of water, but it comes down to how it’s used.”

The U.S. Drought Monitor, a map updated weekly showing drought-related conditions in the U.S., indicates that over 87% of California is experiencing extreme or exceptional drought, with nearly half the state in the worst category.

Less rain has meant less water, especially in areas such as the Colorado River, an important source of imported water for Southern California.

Nevada’s Lake Mead, a major water source for Los Angeles and the West, has been declining since 2000, and recovery is grim, experts say. Even if a great water year was on the way, “you’re not even going to come close to refilling Lake Mead,” said Daniel McEvoy, a climatologist with the Western Regional Climate Center.

All but two of California’s major reservoirs are below their average storage level. Lake Oroville, the second-largest reservoir in the state, is at a record low. And Lake Shasta, the largest reservoir, is critically low — although not as low as it was in 1977, McEvoy said.

A boat navigates Lake Mead, where a white “bathtub ring” along the shore shows how far below capacity the nation’s largest reservoir is on April 1, 2021. (Luis Sinco/Los Angeles Times/TNS)

But unlike in 1977, the drought effects have been worsened by accelerated climate change.

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